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:: anantapur ::
History : Anantapur District was formed in the year 1882 having been separated from Bellary district. Later on, it was expanded with the addition of Revenue Mandals of Kadiri, Mudiguba, Nallamada, N.P. Kunta, Talupula, Nallacheruvu, O.D.Cheruvu, Tanakal, Amadagur and Gandlapenta (previous Kadiri Taluk) from Cuddapah District in the year 1910. During the year 1956, the present Revenue Mandals of Rayadurg, D.Hirehal, Kanekal, Bommanahal and Gummagatta of Bellary District were added to Anantapur District. The District has been divided into 3 Revenue Divisions consisting of 63 Revenue Mandals (Anantapur Division 20, Dharmavaram Division 17 and Penukonda Division 26).

Boundaries and Topography : Anantapur District lies between 13'-40' and 15'-15 Northern Latitude and 76'-50' and 78'-30' Eastern Longitude. It is bounded by Bellary, Kurnool District on the North, Cuddapah and Kolar Districts of Karnataka on South East and North respectively. The District is roughly oblong in shape, the longer side running North to South with a portion of Chitradurg District of Karnataka State intruding into it from west between Kundurpi and Amarapuram Mandals.

The District may be divided into 3 Natural Divisions. They are 1) Northern Mandal of Rayadurg, Kanekal, Beluguppa Gooty, Guntakal, Vajrakarur, Uravakonda, Vidapanakal, Yadiki, Tadipatri, Putlur and Yellannur containing larger areas of Black Cotton soils 2) Kalyandurg, Kambadur, Settur, Brahmasamudram, Ramagiri, Kanaganapalli, C.K. Palli, Dharmavaram, Bathalapalli, Tadimarri, Mudigubba, Anantapur, Kudair, Pamidi and Peddavadugur in the center which are mainly made up of arid Treeless, expense of poor Red Soils, (3) High Level Land of Pendukonda, Roddam, Gudibanda and Agali which connects with Mysore plateau at higher elevation of the rest of the District. This part has average sandy red soils of normal productivity.

Forests : The Forests in the District are thin and scanty. The Muchukota Hills about 35 KMs. in length, run from North of Gooty Town upto extreme Southern Corner of Tadipatri and Yadiki Mandals. Another line of Hills starts from West of Gooty Mandal and run 80 KMs. called by name Nagasamudram Hills. The Mallappakonda Range begins at Dharmavaram and runs into Karnataka State. The Penukonda Range which starts in the South of Dharmavaram through Penukonda and Hindupur proceeds to Karnataka State. In Madakasira, the hills divides Rolla and Agali Mandals into Southern and Northern portions. There are numerous isolated Peaks and Rocky Clusters which are devoid of any vegetation. The height of some of these Hill Ranges are given below: Mallappakonda four Miles to North of Bukkapatnam : 3002 feet Penukonda : 3091 feet Kundurpi Durgam : 2996 feet Madakasira : 2936 feet

Rivers : The important river in the District is Pennar. It has its origin in the Nandi Hills of Karnataka State where it is called "UTTARA PINAKINI" and enters this District in the extreme South of Hindupur Mandal and flows through Parigi, Roddam, Ramagiri, Kambadur, Kalyandurg, Beluguppa, Uravakonda,Vajrakarur,Pamidi, Peddavadugur, Peddapappur and Tadipatri Mandals and finally enters Cuddapah District.

Jayamangala River which has its origin in Karnataka State enters this District in Parigi Mandal and joins Pennar River at Sangameswarampalli of Parigi Mandal. Another significant river in the District is "CHITRAVATHI". Its origin is in Karnataka State . This river enters the District near Kodikonda village of Chilamathur Mandal and flows North over Rocky and Hilly uplands of Gorantla,Puttaparthi, Bukkapatnam, Kothacheruvu, C.K.Palli, Dharmavaram, Bathalapalli, Tadimarri and Yellanur Mandals and falls into Pennar River at Gandikota in Cuddapah District. VEDAVATHI or HAGARI RIVER also an important one in the District has its origin in Karnataka State and flows through Gummagatta, Brahmasamudram, Beluguppa, Kanekal and D.Hirehal Mandals and enters Bellary District of Karnataka State. Bhairavanithippa Project (B.T.Project) constructed on this river. Apart from these streams like KUSHAVATHI in Chilamathur Mandal, SWARNAMUKHI in Agali Mandal, MADDILER U in Nallamada, Kadiri and Mudigubba Mandals, PANDAMERU in Kanaganipalli, Raptadu, Anantapur B.K.Samudram and Singanamala Mandals, PAPAGNI in Tanakal Mandal are important water supply sources to various large and medium irrigation tanks in the district.

Soils : The soils in Anantapur District are predominantly red except Kanekal, Bommanahal, Vidapanakal, Uravakonda, Vajrakarur, Guntakal, Gooty, Pamidi, Peddavadugur, Yadiki, Tadipatri, Yellanur, Peddapappur and Putlur mandals. In these Mandals red and black soils occur almost in equal proportion. Thus 76% red soils, 24% are black soils.

Population : There are 929 inhabited villages, out of 964 total Revenue villages of the District. The number of villages in size group of 500 to 1999 forms 36.71% of the total inhabited villages . The size group of 2000 to 4999 forms 38.64% and the size group of 5000 to 9999 forms 12.81% only out of total villages, while 84 villages ( 9.04%) of total inhabited villages are having population less than 500. There are 26 villages with more than 10000 population excluding Towns. The density of population of the District is 213 per Sq. K.M, against (308) of the State. The population of Rural and Urban to the total population of the District work out to 72% and 28% in 2011 Census as against 75% and 25% of 2001 Census. There are 977 Females per 1000 Males in 2011 Census. The working force in the total population of District forms 48.83% as per 2001 census out of which 26% are in the Agriculture Sector.

Land Utilization : The total geographical area of the district is 19.13 lakh Hects. The land utilisation pattern as available in the district during the year 2011-2012 is as fallows. Net area sown is 10.48 Lakh Hects., which forms 54.78% of the total area. The total cropped area is 11.14 Lakh Hects. Area sown more than once is 0.66 Lakh Hects. The cultivated area of the District is 11.14 Lakh Hects. out of which 9.82 Lakh Hects. is under Kharif and 1.32 Lakh Hects., is under Rabi Season during the year 2011-12. The District occupies the lowest position in respect of Irrigation facilities with only 15.43% of the gross cropped area during 2011-2012. Out of the gross irrigated area of 1.72 Lakh Hects. during 2011-2012 canals accounted for 13.64%, tanks 0.54%, Tube wells 80.59%, wells 3.98% and other sources 1.25%. All the principal sources except canals are non-precarious.

Natural Resources :
The District is not rich in the Forest Wealth. The name ' Forest' in Anantapur District does not indicate any dense tree population with thick foliage of variform of pastures.

Mineral Resources :
At Ramagiri village in Ramagiri mandal, Gold is found to occur in the Cholite Schist's and physlite along with western part of Dharwar Schist's Belt in the district. The place extends over a length of 14 kms Exploratory mining in the area is pruned about 467 meters of ore shoots with an average width of 100 CMS Tonne. Mining operations are expected to be conducted by Bharat Gold Mines Limited.
Diamonds are know to be available near Vajrakarur. They mainly occur in pipe rocks.
(Chrysolite variety Cross fibre type) Barytes High Grade Line Stones, Iron ore and steatite are the minerals occurring in the district. There are however no large sized minerals occurring in the district. There are 2 large scale Cement Factories (Ms. L&T Ltd., and Ms. Penna Cement Ltd.,) in Tadipatri Mandal and producing lakhs tonnes of cement in private sector.

Place of Tourist Importance :
The village in Narpala Mandal is at a distance of 29 kms from Anantapur and is situated among the Mutchukota Hills. It is known for its Moharum Festival and Sri Kullai Swamy is the name of the much venerated saint. Barren women are said to become fertile by paying a visit to the shrine. Fire walking ceremony is conducted on the night of the 11 th day of Moharrum. There is also Sri Anjaneya Swamy Temple near by the abode of Sri Kullai Swamy Chavidi.
The village is situated at a distance of 14 kms from Hindupur Town in Lepakshi Mandal. This place is a famous pilgrim center known for its Veerabhadra Temple and the huge stone" NANDI" which stands nearby. The place is also associated with the travellers of Lord Sri Ram. The Temple is veritable treasure of sculpture and architecture. Large number of pilgrims visit the place on "SHIVARATHRI" and other saivite festival days.
The place is about 4 kms north of Guntakal and is known for the temple of Nettikanti Veera Anjaneya Swamy . Hindu pilgrims from several parts of Anantapur, Kurnool and Bellary districts congregate here in large number specially on Saturdays and worship the deity, besides performing marriages and tonsure ceremonies. Even Muslims of the surrounding areas visit the place and make their offerings to this deity. A huge procession is taken out once in a year on the day next to the Telugu New Year Day.
This place is at a distance of 5 kms. from Tadpatri and is known for the Sri Ranganatha Swamy Temple built on the top of the hill by Yerramaraju, a Chiefttain of Bukkarayalu in 1330.There is a waterfall nearby with perennial spring. It is not only a pilgrim center but also a picnic spot on account of the scenic beauty of the place. Thousands of pilgrims visit the place all round the year and perform marriages and religious ceremonies. The annual Brahmostavam Festival is being celebrated on Chitra Suddah Pournima (Usually in April) attracts huge congregation.
This place situated at a distance of 35 kms. from Anantapur is an uninhabited village known for its Temple of "Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swamy" popularly called as "Degurla Narasimha Swamy". This place is an important pilgrim center in the District and the Car Festival on the fifth day of the dark fortnight in the month of Vaisakam (April-May) will be largely attended by devotees even from the neighboring Districts and the Karnataka State . The temple is constructed on a hillock of 30 feet height. The main shrine consists of gigantic foot mark of 5'x3', believed to be the foot print of Lord Narasimha. Vows are fulfilled and marriages and tonsure ceremonies are performed frequently at this shrine. The temple of Lakshmi , the lords consort is situated by the side of the main shrine. There is a spring channel in the temple known as "Bugga Koneru".
This place is about 21 kms. South-East of Kadiri. There is a Banyan Tree, perhaps the biggest of its kind in the South, its branches spreading over nearly 5 acres, locally called "Thimmamma Marrimanu" after the name of Thimmamma, who is said to have committed " Sati" in 1434 A.D at this spot, where this Banyan Tree sprouted.
This village is on the banks of Chitravathi situated at a distance of about 29 kms. from Penukonda. It is the abode of Puttaparthy Sri Sathya Sai Baba, drawing devoted disciples from all over the world. There is Prasanthi Nilayam (an Ashram) constructed by the Devotees. The Baba is credited with acute powers. On Sivarathri, on the birth day of the Baba and particularly during Dasara, quite a large number of devotees visit the palce. A beautiful mantapa by name" Poornachandra" is constructed in which a large number of Baba devotees would assemble and perform "Bhajana" on festival days
Penukonda is one of the early capitals of the Vijayanagara empire, the fort was impregnable during its time. The two most noteworthy sights in the fort are the "Gagan Mahal" the Summer resort of the kings and "Babayya Darga" a splendid example for communal hormony. Here Kumbakarna garden was spread over 5 acres. It has a Gigantic statue of the sleeping Kumbakarna, measuring 142 feet in length and 32 feet in height into whose cavernos belly one can walk into it. Several asuras are seen trying to wake up the sleeping Gaint.
Hemavathi is located at a distance of 140kms from Anantapur. It is famous for Doddeswara Swamy temple built during the Pallava Reign. The stone used in making the idols sounds like metal when stuck and is also remarkably polished. A Nandi made of black basalt granite, 8 feet in lenght and 4 feet in height sits at the entrance. There is a 6 feet tall Lingam installed inside the sanctum sanctorum. The temple area houses two other temples dedicated to Lord Shiva called the Siddeswara Swamy temple and Mallikarjuna Swamy temple. There is a Museum in side which has rare idols of historical importance of display.
Rayadurg Fort
It is located at a distance of 130kms from Anantapur. The fort was built by the Vijayanagara Kings and has inscriptions indicative of the period, on its walls. Located with in the fort is the RasaSidda Temple. Carved out of a single stone, the temple is embellished with the fine sculptures depicting Jain gurus and their disciples. In the proximity are other sites like Rama Temple, Narasimha Swamy Temple, Neelakanteswara Temple and Jambukeswara Temple.
Gooty Fort
Gooty fort is majistically located at a distance of 52kms from Anantapur at a height of 300mts on a hill. It is one of the oldest hill forts in A.P. Built during the Vijayanagara era, the fort is uniquely built in the shape of a shell with 15 main doors and is significant for its water resources available at such a height.
Chintala Venkataramana Temple is located in Tadipatri town which is at a distance of 52 kms from Anantapur. From Tadipatri town at a distance of 1 km., over looking the Penna river, the Bugga Ramalingeswara Temple is remarkable for a Lingam on a pedestal constantly filled with water from a small spring.
Sri Kadiri Laxmi Narasimha Swamy Temple
Kadiri is the holy shrine where Lord Vishnu set foot and handed over the Utsavamoorthis to Brugu Maharshi for his daily worship. Special Poojas are performed during Dassera and Sakranthi. There are several sacred thirthas connected to the Temple.
Sri Laxmi Chennakeshwara Temple is renowned for its architectural brilliance and for the perennial waterspout and pillars, which produces seven different musical notes when struck. Dharmavaram is also known for its cotton and silk weaving industry with its silk sarees popular all over the world. This place is also known for its expertise in making leather puppets.
Jambu Dweepa at Konakondla
The Jain Mythical cosmographical diagram of Jambu Dweepa engraved on a stone on the top of the hill Alchemists at Konakondla village in Vajrakarur Mandal which was identified by Sri R.V. Chakravarthy, Head Master, Parishad High School, Konakondla in the year 1966. The pilgrims, especially south Indian Jain pilgrims are mostly attracted by this Jambu Dweepa which is 70 kms from Anantapur or 10 kms from Guntakal Railway Station. Adjacent to this, there are Kambam Narasimha Swamy Hills, Rasasidda hillock and Kari Basappa hillock. There is a Thirthanka Temple with idols of Thirthankaras (high priests) on Rasasidda hillock. This may belong to 13 th Century A.D.
Chief Minister
Sri. Nara Chandra Babu Naidu